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An 83-year-old resident of a skilled nursing facility presents to the emergency department with generalized edema of extremities and abdomen. History obtained from staff reveals the patient has history of malabsorption syndrome and difficulty eating due to lack of dentures. The patient has been diagnosed with protein malnutrition.

          This patient has a history of malabsorption syndrome, which is the body’s inability to absorb necessary nutrients from an ingested food and will lead to protein, vitamin and electrolyte deficiencies. This may also be the cause of his generalized edema. many factors can lead to the diagnosis of this patient, such as the underlying condition of the patient, age and physicals factors.

            Base of this patient age, the malabsorption syndrome can result from a genetical mutation that led to a disease such as atypic cystic fibrosis which is a genetic disease. Here, the patient inherits two defective genes from the DNA of each parent. Usually, the primary result of a genetic disease is the inability to produce a certain enzyme normally, which is a type of protein used to speed up or catalyze chemical reactions necessary for cell function (Pelliccia, J., 2022).  This patient excessive water accumulation is due to his protein malnutrition. Individuals with low protein levels are unable to maintain a normal oncotic pressure; therefore, water is not reabsorbed into the circulation and, instead, causes body edema (McCance & Huether., 2019). Also, Low level of albumen will not help in term of holding salt or water.

    This response occurred due to the patient’s lack of protein, starvation, and lack of a denture. Remember that food ingested without having been properly cut or chew will not be digested well. Edema is present due to the lack of protein in the blood. This patient’s albumen levels are expected to be low according to Suryawanshi, Vig, Masih, and Joseph (2018). Endothelial cell is responsible for the physiological response.