Many eservices, also known as ICT (information and communication technology) Services, are used in health, education,
Many eservices, also known as ICT (information and communication technology) Services, are used in health, education, transportation, and other industries. See Attachment A for more details.
A simple service definition is usually a good place to start a system analysis assignment.
It gives everyone a quick idea about what a service is all about. See Attachments B and C for template and example of simple eservice definitions.
We will expand these definitions more as we go along. Please define two services by using the template in attachment B in the following industry sectors:
• Transportation and logistics
• Hotels and restaurants
• Any other (please suggest some)
You can pick any two services from any of these sectors.
Deliverable: Short Document (2-4) Pages
Attachment A: Overview of eServices
All eservices provide a user interface (e.g., HTML), a database, and program. However, some eservices are simple (have only a few screens to display) and others may be large and complex (many pages, many databases, many programs, etc). Specifically, the eservices may be of the following types (see Exhibit 1 for an example):
• Simple informational – just displays an information to the user over the web. These are usually fetch and display apps with minimal business logic.
• Transactional: These services actually allow the users to buy tickets, pay fees, and purchase items online. These services include complicated business logic and many databases.
• Realtime: These service are time critical. Examples are alerts for traffic and weather. These services typically require very fast networks with RSVP.
• Composites (comprehensive): These services combine many or all of the above capabilities. An example is a portal that provides information about many items and also transactional capabilities. These services typically provide several programs that access many databases. Example is the Penn Portal
Exhibit 1: An example: eTourism service
An eTourism service may be of the following types:
• Simple informational – just displays the information about sites to see, sightseeing tours etc over the web
• Transactional: The users can buy tickets for the tours online, in addition to information about the tours.
• Realtime: The users are provided time critical information such as changes and cancellation of tours, weather conditions, etc.
• Composites (comprehensive): combines all of the above. It becomes a travel portal.
Figure 1: Conceptual View of a Portal
Attachment B: Simple Service Definition Template
1. Name of the eservice
One or two paragraphs describing this service with a conceptual diagram (suggested)
3. More details about this topic (e.g., different models, definitions, approaches, etc)
More details with one illustrative example to highlight the key ideas
4. Links to additional information, examples, case studies, etc
Key sources for additional information (the rest are given in section 9)
Examples and case studies of high value
Attachment C: Example of a Simple Service Definition — Distance Learning and eLearning Service
1. Name of the eService
2. Overview (one paragraph with a conceptual diagram view)
Simply stated, e-learning comprises all forms of electronically supported education (i.e., e-education). This term is most commonly used for distance learning over the Internet where the remotely located students and instructors are interconnected through the Internet. Developments in Internet and multimedia technologies are the basic enablers of e-learning. In modern settings,
e-learning typically includes Web/computer-based learning, virtual classrooms and digital collaboration. Content is delivered via the Public Internet, and intranet/extranet via media such as text, image, animation, streaming video and audio. e-Learning is being used heavily in K-20 and professional education. In some cases, e-learning is 100% online, with a mixture of synchronous and asynchronous methods (explained below).
e-Learning systems, as shown in the diagram, consist of the following key components:
• Course development capabilities in electronic format
• Course delivery mechanisms, typically over the Internet
• Course management and administration facilities over the Internet
• Course evaluation (e.g., exams and quizzes)
over the Internet
The e-learning content is delivered by using the asynchronous (self-paced), synchronous (instructor-led) or mixture (e.g., virtual classroom) communications:
• Asynchronous communications allow participants to engage in the exchange of information without the dependency of other participants involvement at the same time. These activities use technologies such as email, blogs, wikis, and discussion boards. Asynchronous e-learning gives students the ability to work at their own pace, thus reducing stress and scheduling problems.
• Synchronous communications involve the exchange of information between several participants during the same period of time.
A telephone call (through Skype, for example) or face to face discussion is an example of synchronous communication. Synchronous e-learning is typically instructor led and requires all participants to join in at once, as with a telephone conference call or an online chat session.
• Mixtures of communication technologies are used in many e-learning environments. A good example is a virtual classroom environment. In virtual classrooms, participants use icons called emoticons (e.g., smiley faces)
to communicate feelings and responses to questions or statements. Virtual classrooms commonly include text notes, microphone rights, and breakout sessions that allow the participants to work collaboratively in a small group setting to accomplish a task or to have private conversations with the instructors. Participants can also use a “white board” for discussions. Some virtual classrooms also allow sharing of desktops, with proper permissions. In short, virtual classrooms attempt to simulate as close to a real classroom environment as possible,
3. More Information
Examples and Case Studies
A large number of case studies and examples on different aspects of e-learning are being published regularly. The following are good sources for such case studies
• eLearn Magazine, Case Studies section (www.elearnmag.org/subpage.cfm?section=case_studies)
• Allen Interactions, e-Learning Case Studies & Demos (www.alleninteractions.com/e-learning-case-studies-and-demos)
• Links to case studies of the use of e-learning within organiZations: corporate and governmental at the e-Learning Center (http://archive.e-
• Case studies on tangible benefits of elearning at JISC Infonet (http://www.jiscinfonet.ac.uk/case-studies/tangible)
• Case studies and examples of effective e-learning, teaching and assessment practice at bioscience academy (http://www.bioscience.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/themes/elearn/elearncs.aspx)
• Rosenberg, M. “E-Learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age”, Educational Technology & Society, 2003
Govindasamy, T., “Successful implementation of e-Learning Pedagogical considerations”, Internet and Higher Education, 4 (2002) 287–299, http://www.qou.edu/arabic/researchProgram/eLearningResearchs/successfulImplementation.pdf
• Dalsgaard, C., “Social software: E-learning beyond learning management systems”, 2006, http://www.eurodl.org/materials/contrib/2006/Christian_Dalsgaard.htm
• A Comprehensive List of References on e-Learning: http://www.karlkapp.com/materials/elearningadvantages.pdf