What factors increase the possibility that the infection is bacterial in origin?

This a case study discussed during the week. There are the questions and the answers. I NEED THE ANSWER TO THE LAST QUESTION. ALL THE QUESTIONS ARE RELATED TO THE SAME PATIENT

What are the provisional and differential diagnoses?

The most likely diagnosis is acute viral tonsillitis or group A beta-haemolytic streptococcal tonsillitis. The differential diagnoses are viral pharyngitis, laryngitis, parainfluenza, influenza, Epstein–Barr virus, or peritonsillar abscess.

What factors increase the possibility that the infection is bacterial in origin?

CBC w/differential

The majority of sore throats are viral in origin and will resolve spontaneously. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococcus is cultured in only 5–17% of adults with sore throat (Linder & Stafford 2001). Centor’s algorithm of clinical features (Centor et al. 1981) helps identify the significant features of streptococcal infection: 

1. presence of tonsillar exudates,

2. tender anterior cervical lymphadenopathy, 

3. the absence of cough 

4. a history of fever. In this case, Ricardo had all four of these clinical signs.

CBC that support the presence of an infectious process are the white blood cell count (WBC) and differential

In non-localized infections of bacterial and viral origin, the total WBC count is elevated in non-immunosuppressed patients

The next thing to look at is the differential which is the percentage of the various types of white blood cells present.

An increase in polymorphonuclear neutrophils, referred to as POLYS OR SEGS

Is seen in bacterial infections including endocarditis, septicemia and pneumonia

An immature form of this type of cell, referred to as a BAND, is often also seen, especially in acute infection

The appearance of these younger cells in the circulation is referred to as “SHIFT TO THE LEFT”

How would you expect to find on this client Sedimentation rate Test and why?

A high sed rate is a sign of a disease that causes acute inflammation in Ricardo’s body. Some conditions and medicines can affect the speed at which red blood cells fall, and they may affect this test results

Because of poor response of this client to Antibiotics 3 days later pt still present 103 constant fever, headaches and vomiting without nausea. Pt was sent to ER and Lumbar Punction is needed.  Mr. Ortego is alert and oriented x 3. 


What is your understanding as NP about Risk Communicating Challenges on this case? Mr. Ortego is alert and oriented x 3.